While leather shoes were still issued in the early years of the camps, prisoners later on often had to wear wooden shoes referred to as Holländer or “Dutch clogs.” Historian and Buchenwald survivor Eugen Kogon recalled: “The situation was particularly bad with regard to footwear. Many prisoners who were issued wooden shoes could scarcely walk after a few days. The so-called ‘Dutch Clogs’ were worst of all. Those unused to them, especially if they lacked socks or winding rags, could not even walk, let alone run in them” (Eugen Kogon: The Theory and Practice of Hell, translated by Heinz Norden. New York 1950, p. 65)